An unidentified flying object (often abbreviated UFO layer of American English UFO means unidentified flying object) is an aerial phenomenon that one or more witnesses said they observed without being able to identify or track that can be been recorded by different types of sensors (video camera, camera, radar, etc.). but we know neither the origin nor the exact nature or the lack or inadequacy of investigation does not identify correctly. In most cases, these observations and evidence, if they do not fall for the hoax, are the result of a misunderstanding with an aerial object known (air, balloon, reentry, etc..). Sometimes we continue to speak even though the UFO phenomenon behind the observations were determined and explained, prompting the scientific community to speak of lack of UFOs, the small number of cases remaining unexplained belonging to it in the long list of mistakes, hoaxes or hallucinations.

Those studying these phenomena are called ufologists, the French equivalent, ovniologue, is less often used. Ufology (or ovniologie) is the study of ufos or UFOs. In France, instead of talking GEIPAN aerospace phenomenon Unidentified (PAN), the term "phenomenon" is in most cases more appropriate than "object", even if the term is not used in the literature by other scientific researchers.

In popular culture, the term UFO used generally to refer to any alleged extraterrestrial spacecraft, but "flying saucer" is also regularly used. By extension, the term used to describe the UFO as a humorous character or object that appears out of nowhere and usually has no future (example: "a UFO in the political landscape").

Prehistory and Antiquity
Tales of unidentified aerial phenomena have been around a long time. Some ufologists have made fanciful theories about our history or reports of interpretations of elements archéologiques.Ces ideas are found in books to sense but none of these ideas have been included in a history book or Archaeological. This historical delirium [non-neutral] is included in the theory of ancient astronauts).

Middle Age and Renaissance
At that time, it is mainly a question of occult phenomena, with theoreticians like Agrippa and Paracelsus. The influence of religion is real because the celestial phenomena are regarded as divine or warnings as expressions which are responsible for evil wizards and witches.

* Woodcut by Hans Glaser (1566), Nuremberg. On April 14, 1561, the author describes an allegory of the battle of good against mal.Certains ufologists (publishing books sensational but no items in history) will interpret this as an invasion of Germany by a multitude of objects or -telling involved in an air battle.

First modern reports
Before the terms "flying saucer" and "UFO" were invented, there were a number of reports of strange unidentified aerial phenomena. These reports range from the mid-nineteenth century to the late 1940s.

* In July 1868, according to Chilean investigators of the phenomenon (the IOC, Corporación para la investigacion UFO), the first observation that is well documented have been made in the city of Copiapo in Chile.
* On January 25, 1878, daily newspaper, Denison (United States) said that a local farmer, John Martin, said he saw a large dark circular object resembling a balloon flight is moving "at wonderful speed.
* On November 17, 1882, the astronomer EW Maunder of the Royal Greenwich Observatory, in a report described "a strange celestial visitor" disk shaped "or" spindle ". Years later, Maunder said that was not unlike a lot of the new Zeppelin airship. The strange object was also seen by several other European astronomers.
* On February 28, 1904, three members of the crew of a cargo of supplies to the U.S. Navy made an observation which reported their lieutenant (Frank Schofield, later to become the Commander in Chief Pacific Fleet) about 500 kilometers west of San Francisco. Schofield says three circular objects and ovoid, bright red, flying in a training level, approaching in the cloud layer, then change direction and rise high above the clouds to move away permanently Earth, 2 or 3 minutes later. The biggest was the apparent size "of about six suns.
* On the air theaters of war in Europe and Japan during World War II, allied pilots such as Axis report foo fighters (balls of light that follow planes).
* On February 25, 1942, an unidentified aircraft was detected above Los Angeles in California. The object remains fearless in the sky despite 20 minutes of sustained fire from antiaircraft batteries (AAA). The incident was later to take the name of "Battle of Los Angeles .
* In 1946, there were over 2,000 reports of unidentified aircraft in the Scandinavian countries but also in France, Portugal, Italy and Greece initially designated as the "Russian hail," they are more later known as "ghost rockets" (in English ghost rockets) because we think we see in these mysterious objects tests Russian rocket V1 or V2 taken from the Germans. This interpretation would later be disproved, but the phenomenon remains unexplained. Over 200 appearances observed on radar, were considered suitable for "real physical objects" by the Swedish military. A significant fraction of the remainder was attributed to misidentification of natural phenomena such as meteors.

Appearance of flying saucers
After the Second World War, the UFO phenomenon affects the general public following the testimony of a publicized American businessman Kenneth Arnold on June 24, 1947. This is the story of the phenomenon he observed while flying his private plane near Mount Rainier in Washington state. He reported seeing nine objects flying saucer very bright and very fast he could not identify, flying Mount Rainier to Mount Adams. He estimated their length between 12 and 15 meters and their speed to at least 1800 km / h. They were flying, says Arnold, "like geese, forming a diagonal line as if they were attached to each other in a hopping motion, similar to a saucer of water splashing onto the. Arnold would later clarify that he had seen UFOs looked like flying saucers ("flying saucers") and large flat disks (flat disks). This testimony, if it is to be the laughingstock of the media and the public, however, knowing that the term "flying saucer".

This case is quickly followed by thousands of witnesses, especially the U.S., but also in other countries.

An important example is that of a flight crew of United Airlines, which reported that nine disc-shaped objects were escorted to their plane over Idaho on the evening of July 4. This account receives a larger media and is considered more credible than that of Arnold. The following days, most newspaper front pages tell stories of flying saucers.

On July 3, 1947, takes place what would become known worldwide as the Roswell incident. That day, Mac Brazel, a rancher near Roswell, found debris on his land and warns the nearest military base. A young member of the Roswell Army Air Field (RAAF) is the first time a press release where he announced that the army has found a "flying saucer" crushed a ranch near Roswell, sparking a strong interest in media. Kenneth Arnold's observation took place nine days earlier and had an important echo in the press so that flying saucers were present in all minds, including in the military. The next day, the general command of the base publishes a correction stating that the flying saucer was only a weather balloon. A press conference is organized in the aftermath, revealing to reporters the debris from the objects found, confirming the thesis of the balloon. The case falls into oblivion for thirty years, marking the end of the first great wave of UFOs in the United States.

In 1978, Major Jesse Marcel, who took part in the recovery of debris in Roswell in 1947, said on television that they were definitely of extraterrestrial origin and that the debris that General Ramey (responsible for the database) was shown to journalists are not those that Marcel has made to Roswell which he said were unidentified metal and included some characters in an unknown hand. He expressed his belief that the military had in fact concealed the discovery of a spacecraft to ufologist Stanton T. Friedman. His story circulated among fans of UFOs and UFO magazines. In February 1980, the National Enquirer led his own interview with Major Marcel, triggering the re-coverage of the Roswell incident. Additional witnesses and reports emerged from the shadows over time adding new details to the story. For example, a major military operation would have taken place at the time, to retrieve pieces of wreckage, or aliens, on no fewer than 11 sites or evidence of intimidation of witnesses. In 1989, a funeral director to retire, Glenn Dennis, claims that alien autopsies have been performed in the Roswell base. In 1991, General Du Bose, Chief of Staff General Ramey in 1947, confirms that the latter had replaced the debris passed through the base of Roswell those of a weather balloon, shown to journalists. In response to these developments, and after an investigation by the U.S. Congress, the GAO (Government Accountability Office, the watchdog organization belonging to the Congress) asked the United States Air Force to conduct an internal investigation. The result of this investigation is summarized in two reports. The first, published in 1995, concluded that the debris found in 1947 came many a secret government program called Project Mogul. The second, published in 1997, concluded that the evidence regarding the recovery of alien bodies were likely diverted from reports of accidents involving military wounded and dead, or the recovery of anthropomorphic dummies in military programs such as Operation High Dive, conducted around 1950. The report nevertheless indicates that the debate on what is actually fell at Roswell continues, but said that all administrative records from the database for the period March 1945-December 1949 have been destroyed and all the radio messages sent by the base 'October 1946 to February 1949. The schedule of destruction does not mention when, by whom and on whose orders the destruction was carried out. These reports were dismissed by supporters of the extraterrestrial theory, screaming at disinformation, although a significant number of ufologists agree then on a decreased likelihood that extraterrestrial spacecraft is truly involved.

UFO over the airport in China
On July 7, a UFO was seen for several minutes above the airport in Hangzhou China.
The airport was even closed and flights diverted to a nearby airport.
The Chinese authorities have not yet decided on the phenomenon.

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